Significant Accounting Policies
|9 Months Ended
Sep. 30, 2022
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]
|SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
NOTE 2 – SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
Basis of Presentation
The accompanying financial statements have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America, (“U.S. GAAP”). In accordance with Regulation S-X under the Securities Act of 1933 and Securities Exchange Act of 1934, the Company does not consolidate portfolio company investments. The accounting records of the Company are maintained in U.S. dollars. As an investment company, as defined by the 1940 Act, the Company follows investment company accounting and reporting guidance of Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) Topic 946 – “Financial Services - Investment Companies”, which is U.S. GAAP. In the opinion of management, all adjustments (consisting of normal recurring accruals) necessary for a fair presentation are reflected in the interim financial statements. The reported amounts for the nine months ended September 30, 2022 may not be indicative of the results ultimately achieved for the year ended December 31, 2022 which will be presented in the Company’s annual report on form 10-K.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires our management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of income and expenses during the reporting period. Changes in the economic environment, financial markets, creditworthiness of our portfolio companies and any other parameters used in determining these estimates could cause actual results to differ. It is likely that changes in these estimates will occur in the near term. The Company’s estimates are inherently subjective in nature and actual results could differ materially from such estimates.
Portfolio Investment Classification
The Company classifies its investments in accordance with the requirements of the 1940 Act. Under the 1940 Act, “Control Investments” are defined as investments in companies in which the Company owns more than 25% of the voting securities or maintains greater than 50% of the board representation. Under the 1940 Act, “Affiliated Investments” are defined as those non-control investments in companies in which the Company owns between 5% and 25% of the voting securities. Under the 1940 Act, “Non-affiliated Investments” are defined as investments that are neither Control Investments nor Affiliated Investments. As of September 30, 2022, the Company had control investments in Advantis Certified Staffing Solutions, Inc., PCC SBH Sub, Inc., Rockfish Holdings, LLC, Rockfish Seafood Grill, Inc., Integrated Medical Partners, LLC and Dominion Medical Management, Inc. as defined under the 1940 Act. As of December 31, 2021, the Company had control investments in Advantis Certified Staffing Solutions, Inc., PCC SBH Sub, Inc., Rockfish Holdings, LLC, Rockfish Seafood Grill, Inc., Integrated Medical Partners, LLC and Dominion Medical Management, Inc. as defined under the 1940 Act.
Investments are recognized when we assume an obligation to acquire a financial instrument and assume the risks for gains or losses related to that instrument. Investments are derecognized when we assume an obligation to sell a financial instrument and forgo the risks for gains and losses related to that instrument. Specifically, we record all security transactions on a trade date basis. Investments in other non-security financial instruments, such as limited partnerships or private companies, are recorded on the basis of subscription date or redemption date, as applicable. Amounts for investments recognized or derecognized but not yet settled are reported as receivables for investments sold or payable for investments acquired, respectively, in the Statements of Assets and Liabilities.
Valuation of Investments
In accordance with U.S. GAAP, fair value is defined as the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability (i.e., the “exit price”) in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date.
In determining fair value, our board of directors uses various valuation approaches. In accordance with U.S. GAAP, ASC 820 establishes a fair value hierarchy for inputs and is used in measuring fair value that maximizes the use of observable inputs and minimizes the use of unobservable inputs by requiring that the most observable inputs be used when available.
Observable inputs are those that market participants would use in pricing the asset or liability based on market data obtained from sources independent of the board of directors. Unobservable inputs reflect our board of director’s assumptions about the inputs market participants would use in pricing the asset or liability developed based on the best information available in the circumstances.
With respect to investments for which market quotations are not readily available, our board of directors undertakes a multi-step valuation process each quarter, as described below:
U.S. GAAP establishes a framework for measuring fair value that includes a hierarchy used to classify the inputs used in measuring fair value. The hierarchy prioritizes the inputs to valuation techniques used to measure fair value into three levels. The level in the fair value hierarchy within which the fair value measurement falls is determined based on the lowest level input that is significant to the fair value measurement. The levels of the fair value hierarchy are as follows:
Level 1 — Valuations based on unadjusted quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities that the Company has the ability to access. Valuation adjustments and block discounts are not applied to Level 1 securities. Since valuations are based on quoted prices that are readily and regularly available in an active market, valuation of these securities does not entail a significant degree of judgment.
Level 2 — Valuations based on quoted prices in markets that are not active or for which all significant inputs are observable, either directly or indirectly.
Level 3 — Valuations based on inputs that are unobservable and significant to the overall fair value measurement.
The availability of valuation techniques and observable inputs can vary from security to security and is affected by a wide variety of factors including, the type of security, whether the security is new and not yet established in the marketplace, and other characteristics particular to the transaction. To the extent that valuation is based on models or inputs that are less observable or unobservable in the market, the determination of fair value requires more judgment. Those estimated values do not necessarily represent the amounts that may be ultimately realized due to the occurrence of future circumstances that cannot be reasonably determined. Because of the inherent uncertainty of valuation, those estimated values may be materially higher or lower than the values that would have been used had a ready market for the securities existed. Accordingly, the degree of judgment exercised by the board of directors in determining fair value is greatest for securities categorized in Level 3. In certain cases, the inputs used to measure fair value may fall into different levels of the fair value hierarchy. In such cases, for disclosure purposes, the level in the fair value hierarchy within which the fair value measurement in its entirety falls is determined based on the lowest level input that is significant to the fair value measurement. For the fair value measurements as of September 30, 2022, the valuation technique for the Company's investment in a First Lien Loan changed to remove the Receiver Recovery, Bankruptcy Recovery and Zero Recovery techniques. The reason for the change was that the Company entered into a settlement agreement prior to the end of the quarter and received funds within a week subsequent to quarter end.
Fair value is a market-based measure considered from the perspective of a market participant rather than an entity-specific measure. Therefore, even when market assumptions are not readily available, the Company’s own assumptions are set to reflect those that market participants would use in pricing the asset or liability at the measurement date. The Company uses prices and inputs that are current as of the measurement date, including periods of market dislocation. In periods of market dislocation, the observability of prices and inputs may be reduced for many securities. This condition could cause a security to be reclassified to a lower level within the fair value hierarchy.
The Company establishes valuation processes and procedures to ensure that the valuation techniques for investments that are categorized within Level 3 of the fair value hierarchy are fair, consistent, and verifiable. The Company’s board of directors designates a Valuation Committee (the “Committee”) to oversee the entire valuation process of the Company’s Level 3 investments. The Committee is comprised of independent directors and reports to the Company’s board of directors. The Committee is responsible for developing the Company’s written valuation processes and procedures, conducting periodic reviews of the valuation policies, and evaluating the overall fairness and consistent application of the valuation policies.
The Committee meets on a quarterly basis, or more frequently as needed, to determine the valuations of the Company’s Level 3 investments. Valuations determined by the Committee are required to be supported by market data, third-party pricing sources, industry accepted pricing models, counterparty prices, or other methods that the Committee deems to be appropriate.
The Company will periodically test its valuations of Level 3 investments through performing back testing of the sales of such investments by comparing the amounts realized against the most recent fair values reported, and if necessary, uses the findings to recalibrate its valuation procedures. On a quarterly basis and unless an internal valuation process is used, the Company engages the services of a nationally recognized third-party valuation firm to perform an independent valuation of the Company’s Level 3 investments. This valuation firm provides a range of values for selected investments, which is presented to the Valuation Committee to determine the value for each of the selected investments.
We expect that most of our portfolio investments will take the form of securities that are not publicly traded. The fair value of loans, securities and other investments that are not publicly traded may not be readily determinable, and we will value these investments at fair value as determined in good faith by our board of directors, including reflecting significant events affecting the value of our investments. Most, if not all, of our investments (other than cash and cash equivalents) will be classified as Level 3 under FASB, or ASC 820 “Fair Value Measurements and Disclosures”. This means that our portfolio valuations will be based on unobservable inputs and our own assumptions about how market participants would price the asset or liability in question. We expect that inputs into the determination of fair value of our portfolio investments will require significant management judgment or estimation. Even if observable market data are available, such information may be the result of consensus pricing information or broker quotes, which include a disclaimer that the broker would not be held to such a price in an actual transaction. The non-binding nature of consensus pricing and/or quotes accompanied by disclaimers materially reduces the reliability of such information. We expect to retain the services of one or more independent service providers to review the valuation of these loans and securities. The types of factors that the board of directors may take into account in determining the fair value of our investments generally include, as appropriate, comparison to publicly traded securities including such factors as yield, maturity and measures of credit quality, the enterprise value of a portfolio company, the nature and realizable value of any collateral, the portfolio company’s ability to make payments and its earnings and discounted cash flow, the markets in which the portfolio company does business and other relevant factors. Because such valuations, and particularly valuations of private securities and private companies, are inherently uncertain, may fluctuate over short periods of time and may be based on estimates, our determinations of fair value may differ materially from the values that would have been used if a ready market for these loans and securities existed. Our net asset value could be adversely affected if our determinations regarding the fair value of our investments were materially higher than the values that we ultimately realize upon the disposal of such loans and securities.
We will adjust the valuation of our portfolio quarterly to reflect our board of directors’ determination of the fair value of each investment in our portfolio. Any changes in fair value are recorded in our Statement of Operations as net change in unrealized gain or loss on investments.
The Company’s portfolio consists primarily of first lien loans, second lien loans, and unsecured loans. Investments for which market quotations are readily available (“Level 2 Loans”) are generally valued using market quotations, which are generally obtained from an independent pricing service or broker-dealers. For other debt investments (“Level 3 Loans”), market quotations are not available and other techniques are used to determine fair value. The Company considers its Level 3 Loans to be performing if the borrower is not in default, the borrower is remitting payments in a timely manner, the loan is in covenant compliance or is otherwise not deemed to be impaired. In determining the fair value of the performing Level 3 Loans, the Board considers fluctuations in current interest rates, the trends in yields of debt instruments with similar credit ratings, financial condition of the borrower, economic conditions, success and prepayment fees, and other relevant factors, both qualitative and quantitative. In the event that a Level 3 Loan instrument is not performing, as defined above, the Board may evaluate the value of the collateral utilizing the same framework described above for a performing loan to determine the value of the Level 3 Loan instrument.
Our equity investments, including common stock, membership interests, and warrants, are generally valued using a market approach and income approach. The income approach utilizes primarily the discount rate to value the investment whereas the primary inputs for the market approach are the earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation and amortization (“EBITDA”) multiple and revenue multiples. The Black-Scholes Option Pricing Model, a valuation technique that follows the income approach, is used to allocate the value of the equity to the investment. The pricing model takes into account the contract terms (including maturity) as well as multiple inputs, including time value, implied volatility, equity prices, risk free rates, and interest rates.
Valuation of Other Financial Instruments
The carrying amounts of the Company’s other, non-investment, financial instruments, consisting of cash, receivables, accounts payable, and accrued expenses, approximate fair value due to their short-term nature.
Cash, Cash Equivalents and Restricted Cash
The Company deposits its cash and restricted cash in financial institutions and, at times, such balances may be in excess of the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation insured limit; however, management does not believe it is exposed to any significant credit risk. Cash Equivalents are short-term, highly liquid investments that are readily convertible to known amounts of cash and present insignificant risk of changes in value.
The following table provides a reconciliation of cash and restricted cash reporting within the Statements of Assets and Liabilities that sum to the total of the same such amounts shown in the Statements of Cash Flows:
As of September 30, 2022 and December 31, 2021, restricted cash consisted of cash held for deposit with law firms that represents the Company in its litigation with Great Value Storage, LLC.
U.S. Treasury Bills
At the end of each fiscal quarter, we may take proactive steps to be in compliance with the RIC diversification requirements under Subchapter M of the Code, which are dependent upon the composition of our total assets at quarter end. We may accomplish this in several ways, including purchasing U.S. Treasury Bills and closing out positions after quarter-end. As of September 30, 2022 and December 31, 2021, the Company did not purchase any U.S. Treasury Bills. The Company does not expect to meet the qualifications of a RIC nor anticipate buying U.S. Treasury Bills until such time as certain strategic alternatives are achieved.
Realized gains or losses on the sale of investments are calculated using the specific identification method. The Company measures realized gains or losses by the difference between the net proceeds from the repayment or sale and the amortized cost basis of the investment, without regard to unrealized appreciation or depreciation previously recognized, but considering unamortized upfront fees and prepayment penalties.
Interest income, adjusted for amortization of premium and accretion of discount, is recorded on an accrual basis. Origination, closing and/or commitment fees associated with senior and subordinated secured loans are accreted into interest income over the respective terms of the applicable loans. Upon the prepayment of a senior or subordinated secured loan, any prepayment penalties and unamortized loan origination, closing and commitment fees are recorded as interest income. Generally, when a payment default occurs on a loan in the portfolio, or if the Company otherwise believes that the borrower will not be able to make contractual interest payments, the Company may place the loan on non-accrual status and cease recognizing interest income on the loan until all principal and interest is current through payment, or until a restructuring occurs, and the interest income is deemed to be collectible. The Company may make exceptions to this policy if a loan has sufficient collateral value, is in the process of collection or is viewed to be able to pay all amounts due if the loan were to be collected on through an investment in or sale of the business, the sale of the assets of the business, or some portion or combination thereof.
Dividend income is recorded on the ex-dividend date.
Structuring fees, excess deal deposits, prepayment fees and similar fees are recognized as income as earned, usually when paid.
Other fee income from investment sources, includes loan fees, annual fees and monitoring fees from our portfolio investments and are included in other income from non-control/non-affiliate investments and other income from affiliate investments. Income from such sources was $6,064 and $6,064 for the three months ended September 30, 2022, and 2021, respectively. Income from such sources was $17,996 and $17,996 for the nine months ended September 30, 2022, and 2021, respectively.
Other income from non-investment sources is generally comprised of interest income earned on cash in the Company’s bank account. Income from such sources was $17 and $21 for the three months ended September 30, 2022 and 2021, respectively. Income from such sources was $55 and $85 for the nine months ended September 30, 2022 and 2021, respectively
Net Change in Unrealized Gain or Loss
Net change in unrealized gain or loss will reflect the change in portfolio investment values during the reporting period, including any reversal of previously recorded unrealized appreciation or depreciation, when gains or losses are realized.
Legal fees invoiced to the Company for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2022 and 2021, were incurred in the normal operating course of business and are included in legal fees on the Statement of Operations.
The Company incurred legal fees related to the lawsuit against Great Value Storage, LLC (“GVS”). The amounts invoiced to the Company, prior to the final judgment received on March 4, 2021, for the nine months ended September 30, 2022 and 2021 were $0 and $14,423. These amounts are recoverable per the loan agreements and were invoiced to GVS and included in the amount Due from portfolio companies on the Statements of Assets and Liabilities. The amounts invoiced to the Company, after the final judgment received on March 4, 2021, for the nine months ended September 30, 2022 and 2021 were $485,370 and $35,003, respectively. These amounts are for fees incurred to recover our judgment and were expensed to Legal fees on the Statements of Operations.
Federal and State Income Taxes
The Company uses the liability method of accounting for income taxes. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are recorded for tax loss carryforwards and temporary differences between the tax basis of assets and liabilities and their reported amounts in the financial statements, using statutory tax rates in effect for the year in which the temporary differences are expected to reverse. A valuation allowance is provided against deferred tax assets when it is more likely than not that some portion or all of the deferred tax assets will not be realized.
The Company did not meet the qualifications of a RIC for the 2021 tax year and was taxed as a corporation under Subchapter C of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 (the “Code”). The failure to qualify as a RIC, however, did not impact the 2021 tax year as the Company had net operating losses and no realized gains in the tax year. Further, the Company has net operating losses and capital losses from prior years it can carry forward to offset taxable income.
The Company does not expect to meet the qualifications of a RIC for the 2022 tax year and is likely to be taxed as a corporation under Subchapter C of the Code. However, in the event that the Company does meet the qualifications of a RIC for the 2022 tax year, it may not be in the best interests of the Company’s stockholders to elect to be taxed as a RIC for the 2022 tax year due to the net operating losses and capital loss carryforwards the Company currently has. Management will make a determination that is in the best interests of the Company and its stockholders.
In order to qualify as a RIC, among other things, the Company is required to distribute to its stockholders on a timely basis at least 90% of investment company taxable income, as defined by the Code, for each year. If the Company achieves its status as a RIC, it generally will not pay corporate-level U.S. federal and state income taxes on any ordinary income or capital gains that it distributes at least annually to its stockholders as dividends. Rather, any tax liability related to income earned by the Company will represent obligations of the Company’s investors and will not be reflected in the financial statements of the Company.
The Company evaluates tax positions taken or expected to be taken while preparing its financial statements to determine whether the tax positions are “more-likely-than-not” of being sustained by the applicable tax authority. The Company recognizes the tax benefits of uncertain tax positions only where the position has met the “more-likely-than-not” threshold. The Company classifies penalties and interest associated with income taxes, if any, as income tax expense. Conclusions regarding tax positions are subject to review and may be adjusted at a later date based on factors including, but not limited to, ongoing analyses of tax laws, regulations and interpretations thereof.
Dividends and Distributions
Dividends and distributions to common stockholders are recorded on the ex-dividend date. The amount, if any, to be paid as a dividend is approved by our board of directors each quarter and is generally based upon our management’s estimate of our earnings for the quarter. For the three and nine months ended September 30, 2022 and 2021, no dividends have been declared or distributed to stockholders. As disclosed in the Company’s Form 8-K that was filed on October 27, 2022, the Board of Directors has authorized and declared a cash dividend of $0.075 per share of common stock payable on December 1, 2022 to stockholders of record as of the close of business on November 21, 2022.
Per Share Information
Basic and diluted earnings (loss) per common share is calculated using the weighted average number of common shares outstanding for the period presented.
Basic earnings (loss) per share is computed by dividing earnings (loss) by the weighted average number of shares of common stock outstanding during the period. Diluted net earnings (loss) per share is computed by dividing net earnings (loss) per share by the weighted average number of shares outstanding, plus, any potentially dilutive shares outstanding during the period. For the three and nine months ended September 30, 2022 and 2021, basic and diluted earnings (loss) per share were the same, since there were no potentially dilutive securities outstanding.
Certain capital accounts including undistributed net investment income, accumulated net realized gain or loss, accumulated net unrealized gain or loss, and paid-in capital in excess of par, are adjusted, at least annually, for permanent differences between book and tax. In addition, the character of income and gains to be distributed is determined in accordance with income tax regulations that may differ from U.S. GAAP.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
In May 2020, the SEC adopted rule amendments that will impact the requirements of investment companies, including BDCs, to disclose the financial statements of certain of their portfolio companies or certain acquired funds (the “Final Rules”). The Final Rules adopted a new definition of “significant subsidiary” set forth in Rule 1-02(w)(2) of Regulation S-X under the Securities Act. Rules 3-09 and 4-08(g) of Regulation S-X require investment companies to include separate financial statements or summary financial information, respectively, in such investment company’s periodic reports for any portfolio company that meets the definition of “significant subsidiary.” The Final Rules adopt a new definition of “significant subsidiary” applicable only to investment companies that (i) modifies the investment test and the income test, and (ii) eliminates the asset test currently in the definition of “significant subsidiary” in Rule 1-02(w) of Regulation S-X. The new Rule 1-02(w)(2) of Regulation S-X is intended to more accurately capture those portfolio companies that are more likely to materially impact the financial condition of an investment company. The Final Rules were effective on January 1, 2021. The adoption resulted in no change to the Company’s disclosures of unconsolidated significant subsidiaries.